Each statement is carefully developed by an expert APsaA
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality and reviewed by the organization's governing body. If you have questions about
American psychoanalytic association American psychoanalytic association homosexuality of these position statements, please visit the American Psychoanalytic Association website. The American psychoanalytic association homosexuality Psychoanalytic Association and the New Center for Psychoanalysis condemn the use of physical punishment corporal punishment in the discipline of children and recommends alternative methods which enhance children's capacities to develop healthy emotional lives, tolerate frustration, regulate tensions, and behave in socially acceptable ways.
Is Psychoanalysis for Me? A Social Problem Physical punishment is a serious public health problem in the United States, and it profoundly affects the mental health of children and the society in which we live.
Yet, the research shows that physical punishment is associated with an increase in delinquency, antisocial behavior, and aggression in children, and a decrease in the quality of the parent-child relationship, mental health, and the child's capacity to internalize socially acceptable behavior. Adults have been subject to physical punishment as children are more American psychoanalytic association homosexuality to abuse their own child or spouse and to manifest criminal behavior Spanking is a euphemism for hitting.
Nor should one be permitted to hit a smaller and even more vulnerable child. Hitting a child elicits precisely
American psychoanalytic feelings one does not want to generate in a child: Studies show that children who are hit identify with the aggressor and are more likely to become hitters themselves, i.
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality homosexuality
They tend to learn to use violent behavior as a way to deal with disputes. Internationally, there is increasing consensus that physical punishment of children American psychoanalytic association homosexuality international human rights law. Significantly, 24 countries have prohibited physical punishment in American psychoanalytic association homosexuality settings, including home.
More than countries have banned physical punishment in the schools. The United States has not banned physical punishment, but approval of physical punishment in the
American American psychoanalytic association homosexuality association homosexuality States has declined gradually and steadily over the past 40 American psychoanalytic association homosexuality. The United States has signed, but not American psychoanalytic association homosexuality, the American psychoanalytic association homosexuality Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child CRCan international treaty which expressly prohibits all forms of physical or mental violence.
Effective alternatives to physical punishment exist to help children tolerate frustrations, regulate tension, behave in socially-acceptable ways, develop appropriate ethical and moral standards, and improve self-esteem.
The New Center for Psychoanalysis and the American Psychoanalytic Association join other mental health and medical organizations in strongly condemning the use of physical punishment with children.
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality American Academy of Pediatrics concludes: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends parents be encouraged and assisted in the development of methods other than spanking for managing undesired behavior.
Physical abuse can be characterized by "the infliction of physical injury American psychoanalytic association homosexuality a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, shaking, or otherwise harming a child. Both physical punishment
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality physical abuse must be condemned.
Alternatives exist which are more effective in enhancing the healthy development of children. Effective Alternatives These suggested alternatives provide parents with greater understanding of their children's development; present strategies which can lead to less violent behavior in children and American psychoanalytic association homosexuality, and decrease the frustration and helplessness in parents which often lead to physical punishment.
One of the most useful ways to achieve healthy
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality development is to promote words instead of Increasing the child's capacity to put words to feelings actions results in increased tension American psychoanalytic association homosexuality, self-awareness, and thoughtful decision-making.
This process is accomplished by: Talking and using words instead of actions — talk rather than hit. Talk with the child about what behaviors are acceptable or not, what is safe or dangerous, and why. Explaining your reasons — this will enhance the child's decision — making capacities.
The word "discipline" comes from the Latin word for "teaching" or "learning. Thus, discipline is a process which addresses American psychoanalytic association homosexuality and the feelings which cause them. Help the child label his or her feelings with words as early as possible. The nine inborn feelings interest, enjoyment, surprise, distress, anger, fear, shame, disgust, and dissmell should be labeled with This will facilitate tension regulation and aid the transition American psychoanalytic association homosexuality more mature ways of handling emotion.
Reinforcement — rewards and praise — American psychoanalytic association homosexuality enhance American psychoanalytic association homosexuality child's self-esteem when appropriate standards are met.
Reinforcement is more
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality in obtaining long-term behavioral
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality than frightening and shaming punishments. Set a good example for the child. The child wants to be like the parents. Children identify with their parents, and they will American psychoanalytic association homosexuality feelings and actions into words when they see their parents doing this.
Who the parents are, and how they behave, have a profound impact on the development of their children.
Your child will follow your lead. It has been estimated that at least one third ortroops will be in need of mental health services to address symptoms of depression, post traumatic stress disorder PTSDand traumatic brain injury TBI. Research has shown that these syndromes have significant negative impact on family relationships and American psychoanalytic association homosexuality children in particular who are the most vulnerable. This vulnerability has been exacerbated by parents being deployed more than one time and in some American psychoanalytic association homosexuality when both parents have been deployed.
These estimates do not include costs American psychoanalytic association homosexuality mental health needs of children as they develop towards adulthood. A recent study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health showed that adult children of depressed parents have a much higher risk of mental and physical illness. Incidence of aggressive behavior, academic problems, and related symptoms in children can be expected to be very high due to the greater incidents of diagnosed and undiagnosed PTSD and TBI.
The New Center for Psychoanalysis and the American Psychoanalytic Association support the following actions to prevent
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality devastating public health crisis that could impact our children and families for generations to come: Greater public and private access and support for American psychoanalytic association homosexuality health services to veterans, their families and children.
Guaranteed privacy a foundation of effective treatment and patient right with release of information only with patient's permission or legal compulsion. Preventative support services for children and families when a family member is deployed.
Education of mental health students and providers about the
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality effect of parental trauma on children.
Support for public awareness and education through the media of the impact of depression, PTSD, and brain injuries not only on the veteran but on his or her family and children. Advocacy for any legislation that will support diagnosis, immediate, and longer term care for veterans, their children and families.
Section bans openly gay, lesbian and bisexual American psychoanalytic association homosexuality from serving in the American psychoanalytic association homosexuality. It is the position of APsaA and NCP that sexual orientation is not germane American psychoanalytic association homosexuality any aspect of military effectiveness, including unit cohesion, morale, American psychoanalytic association homosexuality or retention.
Empirical evidence, as well as comparative data from foreign militaries and domestic police and fire departments shows that when lesbians, gay men and bisexuals are allowed to serve openly there is American psychoanalytic association homosexuality evidence of disruption.
NCP and APsaA recognize and abhor the many detrimental effects the policy has had on individual service members, the military and the
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality States society since the enactment of Title 10 section in Years of psychological research and experience have shown the extensive mental toll of keeping one's sexual orientation hidden.
Mandating a ban on self disclosure of sexual orientation for personnel in uniform is thus unnecessarily harmful to their mental health and well being. It also creates ethical dilemmas for military mental health providers. Personnel in uniform are currently at war and find the love and support of their families to be essential in supporting them carrying out their missions. Under the current government policy, lesbian, gay and bisexual military members must be vigilant not to inadvertently disclose their sexual orientation.
They are unable to contact their partners and loved ones openly via phone or e-mail when away from home for fear of being discovered.
On military forms they cannot list their partners as "next of kin" when they are to notified in an emergency.
At such specific times of distress or emergency, these individuals are isolated and restricted from having American psychoanalytic association homosexuality unguarded and honest access to the support of their loved ones and families. Where openly lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals have been allowed to serve in the U. Armed Forces there has been no evidence of disruption or loss of mission effectiveness. NCP and APsaA thus reaffirm their support for men American psychoanalytic association homosexuality women in uniform
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality dedication to promoting their health and well-being.
NCP and APsaA endorse the amelioration of the negative effects of the current law through the training and education of mental health professionals and the dissemination of scientific knowledge and professional expertise relevant to American psychoanalytic association homosexuality this resolution.
This statement is part of NCP's and APsaA's strong ongoing commitment to removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with homosexual, bisexual and transgender behavior and orientations; promoting American psychoanalytic association homosexuality health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender adults and youth; eliminating violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender armed service members; and working to ensure the equality of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people, both as individuals and members of committed same-sex relationships, in such areas as employment, housing, public accommodation, licensing, parenting and access to legal benefits.
Since APsaA's endorsement of Lambda Legal's Marriage Resolution, reactionary social and political groups across the country have taken aim not just at same-sex civil marriage, but also at same-sex unions. At this writing, 18 states have passed constitutional American psychoanalytic association homosexuality banning same-sex marriage, and 27 states have enacted legal statutes defining marriage as between a man and a American psychoanalytic association homosexuality. Recognizing that this blatant discrimination is having a significant adverse impact on the psychological and social well-being and stability of gay and lesbian couples, their children and families, APsaA's CGLI and Executive Committee and the New Center for Psychoanalysis NCP think that at this moment in the political discourse of the United States, they have an ethical, moral and social responsibility to issue a more comprehensive statement about same-sex marriage.
Civil marriage provides a legal framework for the creation and dissolution of committed relationships; it socially sanctions a relationship, defining its legal rights, benefits and responsibilities. Marriage thus functions as stabilizing force. Government sanctioned discrimination against gay and lesbian couples denies them the 1. Research is now emerging that outlines the benefits that accrue to married same-sex couple and their children. Discriminatory marriage laws adversely affect the children of same-sex couples.
Although some states now allow second parent adoptions, children of same-sex couples in most of the United States are not permitted to be adopted by their second parent and thus are more vulnerable than children of married
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality. For example, health benefits may not be available to the child if the non-biological or non-adoptive parent is the only parent with health insurance.
If relationship dissolution occurs, the non-biological or non-adoptive parent may American psychoanalytic association homosexuality parental rights, subjecting the child to potentially traumatizing loss, instability and financial insecurity.
Further, socially sanctioned discrimination adds to the burdens of both the children of same-sex couples as well as gay and lesbian youth who have
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality rates of suicide attempts than heterosexual youth. Patient Control of Computerized Records The American Psychoanalytic Association and the New Center for Psychoanalysis strongly support the rights of psychoanalytic and psychotherapy patients to restrict their personal health information other than minimally necessary administrative data from being entered, stored, used or disclosed in networked electronic record systems.
Requiring patients to authorize or American psychoanalytic association homosexuality consent for their personal health information to be entered into a networked electronic system, whether such information is derived from psychotherapy or psychoanalysis evaluation or should not be a condition for patients obtaining or American psychoanalytic association homosexuality clinicians providing psychotherapy or psychoanalysis.
Personal health information derived from psychotherapy or psychoanalysis evaluation or treatment may be entered into computerized electronic networks only if accompanied by the patient's non-coerced informed consent or authorization.
Rationale and Discussion The intent of this position statement is to heighten members' awareness of, and develop a policy to minimize the potential negative of, networked electronic information systems on psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.
This position statement aims to address this serious issue by establishing a policy that will enhance and preserve a robust patient privacy as a necessary cornerstone of effective and ethical psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. Historically, APsaA's ethical standards and advocacy efforts for medical record privacy are based on a fundamental premise: This requires trust, made possible by the patient's expectation of confidentiality. Redmond decision Jaffee v.
Networked computerized record systems that now exist within the health care system have an immense capacity to disperse private health information American psychoanalytic association homosexuality beyond the patient's or treating professional's control, and is evidence that these systems are not secure. Although the HIPAA Privacy Rule provides guidelines that cover uses and disclosures of personal health information, it was not intended to be a 'best practices standard,' was not intended to override more stringent state law privacy protections, does not include or recognize the American psychoanalytic association homosexuality privilege as defined in Jaffee v.
Redmond and was never intended to supplant standards of professional ethics. Damaging information may still fall into the hands of employers, private investigators, insurance data pools affecting future insurabilitylaw enforcement agencies without due process, and others who may abuse the information and harm the patient.
Recent legislative proposals to establish a nation-wide electronic medical information network will further erode patient privacy, if enacted. As
American psychoanalytic association homosexuality long been American psychoanalytic association homosexuality in the U.
Supreme Court's Jaffee v.